Computer-Aided Design (CAD) is the process of creating technical drawing with the use of
2D CAD system
2D CAD systems are vector-oriented drawing programs. They can be used in a similar way to a
drawing board. Tools provide help in processing drawing elements such as points, lines,
polylines, arcs and splines.
3D CAD system
3D CAD systems are drawing programs which, as a minimum requirement, work with vectors
lying in three design axes and are thus capable of creating a volume model. A further
development of this are object-oriented 3D CAD systems which work with CAD objects instead
3D clash detection
Clash detection is a process for effectively identifying, inspecting and reporting interferences in
a 3D project model. Instead of conducting clash detection only one-time for coordination of
completed design work, it is used as a continuously on-going project audit and quality control
Three-dimensional imaging method in which surface structures are computed by means of the
pulse duration of a laser beam. This creates a digital point cloud with a defined number of
points and their respective coordinates. Currently, scanning rates of up to 100,000 points per
second with a precision of approx. 1 millimeter are possible.
3D modeling is the method of digitally creating a mathematical representation of any real object
in three-dimensions. The product is called 3D model.
A 3D model is the depiction of a particular aspect of reality in the computer by means of
abstraction. The most practical way of entering the geometry is by using a suitable CAD
program and then assigning the different construction components, such as walls, columns and
ceilings to the geometry. Every construction component is an object in the 3D model.
A 4D model intelligently links time or schedule-related information to individual components in a
3D model. In order to do that, elements from the model are assigned a logical construction
sequence which gives more control in planning and managing construction schedules. (4D =
3D + Time)
A 5D model intelligently links time and cost-related information to individual components in a
3D model. It integrates model-based quantity take-off material/labor resources and cost
estimates. (5D = 3D + Time + Cost)
A nD model integrates additional information in a virtual BIM model. It may contain information
such as room name, room number, manufacture of the components, any
operations/maintenance relates specifications and as-built information. (nD = 3D + Time + Cost
- additional information)
(Lat. attribuere – to assign, give or bestow) An attribute is a concrete feature of an object. An
object is therefore determined unambiguously by the totality of its attributes.
Augmented Reality is a technology that superimposes the computer generated virtual content
over a live view of the world which not only contains the input from the 3D model but may also
have sound, video, graphics or GPS data inputs enhancing our perception of real world
situations. It has the potential to change how site managers and construction workers can
interact and access to virtual information in real-time.
With a strong background in the BIM technologies, BIM Engineer supports the BIM Manager by
streamlining the BIM processes. The BIM Engineer is not the first point of contact for the client
in a BIM project, but he/she works closely with the BIM modeling team and will step up when it
comes to technical details.
BIM Implementation Plan
The BIM Implementation Plan is a document that includes BIM tools, recommendations for
roles and responsibilities and best business process guidelines. It defines uses for BIM on the
project, describes project BIM goals/objectives along with a detailed process for creating,
managing and monitoring information flow during the project.
BIM implementation is a process that takes place in the beginning of the project. Its purpose is
to clearly define project BIM goals, types of BIM applications to be used, responsibilities of
participant and required resources.
The essential Components of BIM that form a successful BIM implementation are process,
people, technology and policy which are brought together by the fifth component of
BIM Manager is a specialist who can manage, control and coordinate the flow of information as
well as support the teams with BIM Implementation process.
Building Information Modeling (BIM)
BIM is a method for optimizing the design, execution and operation of building structures. The
basis of BIM is formed by a 3D computer model which can be enhanced by adding further
information, such as on time, costs, utilization. It is not a software package but a method of
working, collaborating, designing, managing, constructing and operating.
Building Information System (BIS)
The ViCon BIS is a data analysis software in which the numerical and geometrical information
of the 3D model are logically linked and depicted in easily surveyed form. BIS contains the 3D
geometry of the building together with 2D drawings, contracts, information on the rooms,
quantities, time schedule and any other information that may be required. ViCon provides the
software for a Building Information System and develops and coordinates the interfaces to a
A method for analyzing building models. For this, physical properties, such as the identifying
values of the building materials, construction time or traffic figures are assigned to the CAD
model. This then enables such matters as energy consumption, the construction work
sequence or flows of individuals to be simulated.
COBie stands for Construction Operations Building information exchange. It is an
internationally recognized data specification, developed to collect high-quality integrated
information during design and construction and hand it over to the building operator. It can be
used in IFC, SPFF, ifcXML and spreadsheetML.
Design Coordination System (DCS)
Software for the administration, filtering and evaluation of clash points from the 3D MEP Clash
Detection. It supports the coordination process and permits analysis of the consolidated 3D
model via the Internet.
It is a process that uses computer tools to convert digital design into real-life physical objects.
BIM models are now widely used to facilitate customized digital fabrication of building
components and assemblies bringing quality, economy and speed to the projects.
Digital room book
Digital compilation of data providing room-specific information. A room book contains an ID
number, information on localization and utilization of the room and on dimensions, materials,
technical installations and employees.
Digital Terrain Model (DTM)
Digital, numeric model of terrain heights and forms. Depending on the field of application,
precision ranges from just a few centimeters up to 100 meters. This data can further be used
for GIS analysis and visualization.
Drawing Exchange Format (DXF)
File format for exchanging vector data. DXF is supported by most CAD programs. Object
definitions, such as “walls”, are lost during the data exchange process.
Autodesk (AutoCAD) file format for saving vector data. The format has become an established
standard in the field of CAD drawings.
Geographic Information System (GIS)
It is a system of hardware and software used to capture, store, change, analyze, manage, and
present all types of geographical data. Spatial features are stored in a coordinate system
referring to a particular location on the earth.
Industry Foundation Classes (IFC)
Independent standard for describing the building models of various CAD systems. As well as
the geometrical data, further properties of the building structures are depicted. The IFC are
defined by the Industrial Alliance for Interoperability (IAI). The IFC permit the exchange across
different software systems of construction and facility management data.
It is the ability of different systems/platforms to exchange information and being able to use that
information without losing the required specifications/data values.
Interactive meeting room for video conferences and project meetings. Its key constituent is an
interactive presentation board for depicting and controlling the functions. An iRoom combines
the useful area of a flipchart with the overview capacity of an A0 drawing and the
communication options of a PC system.
Level of Development (LOD)
LOD describes the maturity of individual building elements, which evolve from the lowest level
of conceptual approximation to the highest level of representational precision. The American
Institute of Architects (AIA) adopted five basic levels from LOD 100 to LOD 500 in its
‘Document G202™-2013 Project Building Information Modeling Protocol Form’ that gives a
generic definition of minimum content requirements and authorized uses for each model
element at progressive levels of completeness.
Based on the experience of implementing BIM in a variety of projects, HOCHTIEF ViCon has
developed a concept of six BIM model types for typical project phases: 3D schematic model,
3D marketing model, 3D design model, 3D quantity model, 3D construction model, 3D asset
Open BIM is an approach to create open standards and workflows for collaborative design,
execution and operation of buildings. Initiated by, building SMART and several leading
software vendors, it makes the data exchange interoperable while giving the project
stakeholders freedom in their choice of software.
A measurable or quantifiable characteristic, a constant, a fixed criterion.
Parametric building model
Parametric building model is a technology that uses parameters to formulate the behavior of a
graphical component. The CAD objects stand in relation to one another and mutually influence
one another. A wall, for instance, has a connection to the ground it stands on and to the ceiling
it joins up with. If the height of the wall is changed, the ceiling also shifts. This makes the
editing of the model easier while preserving the original design intent.
Regardless of size and its complexity, each project has to go through series of stage from
initiation, planning, execution, closure and operations. The term “project lifecycle” is used to
describe this logical sequence.
Request for Information (RFI)
It is a process to collect written information to make a decision on what step is needed next in
the process. In construction industry, it is often used in cases where clarification is needed for
interpreting details, specifications or construction drawings.
A model’s structure is called topology.
Abbreviation for Virtual Design and Construction.
Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML)
VRML is a platform-independent descriptive language for 3D scenes, geometries and
animations. It is used in the Internet or in local environments to render three-dimensional