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Term Description

CAD

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) is the process of creating technical drawing with the use of

computer software.

2D CAD system

2D CAD systems are vector-oriented drawing programs. They can be used in a similar way to a

drawing board. Tools provide help in processing drawing elements such as points, lines,

polylines, arcs and splines.

3D CAD system

3D CAD systems are drawing programs which, as a minimum requirement, work with vectors

lying in three design axes and are thus capable of creating a volume model. A further

development of this are object-oriented 3D CAD systems which work with CAD objects instead

of vectors.

3D clash detection

Clash detection is a process for effectively identifying, inspecting and reporting interferences in

a 3D project model. Instead of conducting clash detection only one-time for coordination of

completed design work, it is used as a continuously on-going project audit and quality control

process.

3D laser-scanning

Three-dimensional imaging method in which surface structures are computed by means of the

pulse duration of a laser beam. This creates a digital point cloud with a defined number of

points and their respective coordinates. Currently, scanning rates of up to 100,000 points per

second with a precision of approx. 1 millimeter are possible.

3D modeling

3D modeling is the method of digitally creating a mathematical representation of any real object

in three-dimensions. The product is called 3D model.

3D model

A 3D model is the depiction of a particular aspect of reality in the computer by means of

abstraction. The most practical way of entering the geometry is by using a suitable CAD

program and then assigning the different construction components, such as walls, columns and

ceilings to the geometry. Every construction component is an object in the 3D model.

4D model

A 4D model intelligently links time or schedule-related information to individual components in a

3D model. In order to do that, elements from the model are assigned a logical construction

sequence which gives more control in planning and managing construction schedules. (4D =

3D + Time)

5D model

A 5D model intelligently links time and cost-related information to individual components in a

3D model. It integrates model-based quantity take-off material/labor resources and cost

estimates. (5D = 3D + Time + Cost)

nD model

A nD model integrates additional information in a virtual BIM model. It may contain information

such as room name, room number, manufacture of the components, any

operations/maintenance relates specifications and as-built information. (nD = 3D + Time + Cost

  • additional information)

Attribute

(Lat. attribuere – to assign, give or bestow) An attribute is a concrete feature of an object. An

object is therefore determined unambiguously by the totality of its attributes.

Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality is a technology that superimposes the computer generated virtual content

over a live view of the world which not only contains the input from the 3D model but may also

have sound, video, graphics or GPS data inputs enhancing our perception of real world

situations. It has the potential to change how site managers and construction workers can

interact and access to virtual information in real-time.

BIM Engineer

With a strong background in the BIM technologies, BIM Engineer supports the BIM Manager by

streamlining the BIM processes. The BIM Engineer is not the first point of contact for the client

in a BIM project, but he/she works closely with the BIM modeling team and will step up when it

comes to technical details.

BIM Implementation Plan

The BIM Implementation Plan is a document that includes BIM tools, recommendations for

roles and responsibilities and best business process guidelines. It defines uses for BIM on the

project, describes project BIM goals/objectives along with a detailed process for creating,

managing and monitoring information flow during the project.

BIM Implementation

BIM implementation is a process that takes place in the beginning of the project. Its purpose is

to clearly define project BIM goals, types of BIM applications to be used, responsibilities of

participant and required resources.

BIM Management

The essential Components of BIM that form a successful BIM implementation are process,

people, technology and policy which are brought together by the fifth component of

management.

BIM Manager

BIM Manager is a specialist who can manage, control and coordinate the flow of information as

well as support the teams with BIM Implementation process.

Building Information Modeling (BIM)

BIM is a method for optimizing the design, execution and operation of building structures. The

basis of BIM is formed by a 3D computer model which can be enhanced by adding further

information, such as on time, costs, utilization. It is not a software package but a method of

working, collaborating, designing, managing, constructing and operating.

Building Information System (BIS)

The ViCon BIS is a data analysis software in which the numerical and geometrical information

of the 3D model are logically linked and depicted in easily surveyed form. BIS contains the 3D

geometry of the building together with 2D drawings, contracts, information on the rooms,

quantities, time schedule and any other information that may be required. ViCon provides the

software for a Building Information System and develops and coordinates the interfaces to a

3D model.

Building simulation

A method for analyzing building models. For this, physical properties, such as the identifying

values of the building materials, construction time or traffic figures are assigned to the CAD

model. This then enables such matters as energy consumption, the construction work

sequence or flows of individuals to be simulated.

COBie standard

COBie stands for Construction Operations Building information exchange. It is an

internationally recognized data specification, developed to collect high-quality integrated

information during design and construction and hand it over to the building operator. It can be

used in IFC, SPFF, ifcXML and spreadsheetML.

Design Coordination System (DCS)

Software for the administration, filtering and evaluation of clash points from the 3D MEP Clash

Detection. It supports the coordination process and permits analysis of the consolidated 3D

model via the Internet.

Digital Fabrication

It is a process that uses computer tools to convert digital design into real-life physical objects.

BIM models are now widely used to facilitate customized digital fabrication of building

components and assemblies bringing quality, economy and speed to the projects.

Digital room book

Digital compilation of data providing room-specific information. A room book contains an ID

number, information on localization and utilization of the room and on dimensions, materials,

technical installations and employees.

Digital Terrain Model (DTM)

Digital, numeric model of terrain heights and forms. Depending on the field of application,

precision ranges from just a few centimeters up to 100 meters. This data can further be used

for GIS analysis and visualization.

Drawing Exchange Format (DXF)

File format for exchanging vector data. DXF is supported by most CAD programs. Object

definitions, such as “walls”, are lost during the data exchange process.

DWG

Autodesk (AutoCAD) file format for saving vector data. The format has become an established

standard in the field of CAD drawings.

Geographic Information System (GIS)

It is a system of hardware and software used to capture, store, change, analyze, manage, and

present all types of geographical data. Spatial features are stored in a coordinate system

referring to a particular location on the earth.

Industry Foundation Classes (IFC)

Independent standard for describing the building models of various CAD systems. As well as

the geometrical data, further properties of the building structures are depicted. The IFC are

defined by the Industrial Alliance for Interoperability (IAI). The IFC permit the exchange across

different software systems of construction and facility management data.

Interoperability

It is the ability of different systems/platforms to exchange information and being able to use that

information without losing the required specifications/data values.

iRoom

Interactive meeting room for video conferences and project meetings. Its key constituent is an

interactive presentation board for depicting and controlling the functions. An iRoom combines

the useful area of a flipchart with the overview capacity of an A0 drawing and the

communication options of a PC system.

Level of Development (LOD)

LOD describes the maturity of individual building elements, which evolve from the lowest level

of conceptual approximation to the highest level of representational precision. The American

Institute of Architects (AIA) adopted five basic levels from LOD 100 to LOD 500 in its

‘Document G202™-2013 Project Building Information Modeling Protocol Form’ that gives a

generic definition of minimum content requirements and authorized uses for each model

element at progressive levels of completeness.

Model types

Based on the experience of implementing BIM in a variety of projects, HOCHTIEF ViCon has

developed a concept of six BIM model types for typical project phases: 3D schematic model,

3D marketing model, 3D design model, 3D quantity model, 3D construction model, 3D asset

model.

Open BIM

Open BIM is an approach to create open standards and workflows for collaborative design,

execution and operation of buildings. Initiated by, building SMART and several leading

software vendors, it makes the data exchange interoperable while giving the project

stakeholders freedom in their choice of software.

Parameter

A measurable or quantifiable characteristic, a constant, a fixed criterion.

Parametric building model

Parametric building model is a technology that uses parameters to formulate the behavior of a

graphical component. The CAD objects stand in relation to one another and mutually influence

one another. A wall, for instance, has a connection to the ground it stands on and to the ceiling

it joins up with. If the height of the wall is changed, the ceiling also shifts. This makes the

editing of the model easier while preserving the original design intent.

Project lifecycle

Regardless of size and its complexity, each project has to go through series of stage from

initiation, planning, execution, closure and operations. The term “project lifecycle” is used to

describe this logical sequence.

Request for Information (RFI)

It is a process to collect written information to make a decision on what step is needed next in

the process. In construction industry, it is often used in cases where clarification is needed for

interpreting details, specifications or construction drawings.

Topology

A model’s structure is called topology.

ViCon

Abbreviation for Virtual Design and Construction.

Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML)

VRML is a platform-independent descriptive language for 3D scenes, geometries and

animations. It is used in the Internet or in local environments to render three-dimensional

depictions.

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